Importantly, these trials evaluated the program in settings where the alternative treatment was community-based group care in a residential facility.
Thus their findings apply only to the program as implemented in such settings.
85% were Caucasian, and 57% were from single-parent families. This is because of a limitation in the study – namely, a sizable pre-program difference in self-reported delinquency between the TFCO group and the control group (see “Discussion of Study Quality,” below).
This was a second randomized controlled trial of chronic female juvenile offenders in Oregon who had been mandated by juvenile courts to receive out-of-home care due to chronic delinquency, and who had consented to study participation.For reasons discussed below, we have stronger confidence that TFCO reduces criminal activity for females than males, and believe the effect on males requires corroboration in additional studies to constitute strong evidence.The following summarizes the program’s effects on the main outcomes measured in each study, including any such outcomes for which no or adverse effects were found.The effect for the combined sample was statistically significant (p The fact that TFCO’s effects on pregnancy were similar in study 1 (without the HIV component) and study 2 (with the HIV component) suggests that this added component was not a key factor in the program’s effectiveness.But this conclusion can only be considered tentative because the girls were not randomly assigned between the two alternative versions of TFCO.The girls were randomly assigned to TFCO or to a control group that received community-based residential group care (the typical treatment for such youth in Oregon).