In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.
According to Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio, the White Serbs had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands; they received provinces in the west, towards the Adriatic, which they would rule as subjects to Heraclius (610–641). Later, this name appeared in several variants: Alba Graeca (Greek city), Griechisch Wiessenburg (Greek white castle), Nandor Alba (City of the Bulgarians), Nandor Fejervar (The white castle of the Bulgarians), Castelbianco (White Castle), Alba Bulgarica (Bulgarian City).
The city flourished under Stefan Lazarević, son of Serbian prince Lazar Hrebeljanović.
Lazarević built a castle with a citadel and towers, of which only the Despot's tower and west wall remain.
It frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars.
Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841.
Although the Ottomans captured most of the Serbian Despotate, Belgrade, known as Nándorfehérvár in Hungarian, was unsuccessfully besieged in 1440 Seven decades after the initial siege, on 28 August 1521, the fort was finally captured by Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and his 250,000 soldiers and over 100 ships subsequently, most of the city was razed to the ground and its entire Orthodox Christian population was deported to Istanbul, In 1594, a major Serb rebellion was crushed by the Ottomans.
One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC.
In antiquity, Thraco-Dacians inhabited the region and after 279 BC Celts conquered the city, naming it Singidūn.
Most of the subsequent Balkan offensives occurred near Belgrade.
Austro-Hungarian monitors shelled Belgrade on 29 July 1914, and it was taken by the Austro-Hungarian Army under General Oskar Potiorek on 30 November.
Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event.