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On March 1, 2003, DHS absorbed the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and assumed its duties. The Federal Protective Service falls under the National Protection and Programs Directorate.In doing so, it divided the enforcement and services functions into two separate and new agencies: Immigration and Customs Enforcement and Citizenship and Immigration Services. Customs Service, and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service were consolidated into a new agency under DHS: U. In 2011, the Department of Homeland Security phased out the old Homeland Security Advisory System, replacing it with a two-level National Terrorism Advisory System.

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DHS also constitutes the most diverse merger of federal functions and responsibilities, incorporating 22 government agencies into a single organization. executive branch organizations related to "homeland security" into a single Cabinet agency.

On January 11, 2005, President Bush nominated federal judge Michael Chertoff to succeed Ridge. The Washington Post said that the rules would allow DHS "to override any provision in a union contract by issuing a department-wide directive" and would make it "difficult, if not impossible, for unions to negotiate over arrangements for staffing, deployments, technology and other workplace matters." A federal appeals court ruled against DHS in 2006; pending a final resolution to the litigation, Congress's fiscal year 2008 appropriations bill for DHS provided no funding for the proposed new personnel system.

Chertoff was confirmed on February 15, 2005, by a vote of 98–0 in the U. In a February 2008 court filing, DHS said that it would no longer pursue the new rules, and that it would abide by the existing civil service labor-management procedures. The seal is symbolic of the Department's mission – to prevent attacks and protect Americans – on the land, in the sea and in the air.

The Department of Homeland Security was established on November 25, 2002, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The following 22 agencies were incorporated into the new department: A U. Customs and Border Protection Officer addresses Dick Cheney (center), then Vice President of the United States, Saxby Chambliss (center right), a U. senator from Georgia and Michael Chertoff (far right), then United States Secretary of Homeland Security in 2005 Prior to the signing of the bill, controversy about its adoption centered on whether the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency should be incorporated in part or in whole (neither were included).

The bill was also controversial for the presence of unrelated "riders", as well as for eliminating certain union-friendly civil service and labor protections for department employees.

In response to the September 11 attacks, President George W.

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